Scientific Advisory Services, Ltd.
Symposium on Safety in Ice Hockey – May 5-6, 2002


Dr. C. J. Abraham, P.E. *

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• What Effect Does Protective Headgear Have on Reducing the Impact to the Brain in Soccer and All Other Sports? [PDF]
• New Materials Award of the Textile Institute
• Amusement Park Accident Verdict
• Overcoming Federal Preemption
• Playground Safety
• Playgrounds and Amusement Parks
• Concussions - Your Body Is Nothing Without A Brain [PDF]
• Prior Trial Results
• Human Factors, Safety & Hazard Analysis
• Toy Design & Safety
• Warnings & Instructions
• Sports & Recreation Safety
• OSHA and Labor Law
• Slips, Trips & Falls
• Recreation & Sports Accidents
• Columbia University Presentation
• The Flammable Fabrics Act: An Unreasonably Dangerous Act
• Flammable Fabrics Case
• A New Standard of Care in
Absorbing and Dissipating Forces

• A Viable Product vs. The Legal System
• Concussions, Head Injuries and the Textile Industry [PDF]
• Concussions and Potential Risks in Children and Adults [PDF]
• United States District Court Decision: Allison Nowak, et al Plaintiffs v. Faberge U.S.A. and Precision Valve Corporation, Defendants
• Arnau v. WC Maui Coast LLC, et al.; U.S. District Court, District of Mawaii
• Industrial Products & Equipment
• Improved Protection For Sports Helmets
• News – Battery Petition
• NHTSA Petition: Battery Explosions
• Soccer – Head Injuries and Protection
• National Alliance for Youth Sports – SportingKid Magazine – Fall 2007
• Dr. Abraham at Columbia University [PDF]

• ForceField FF Headbands
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Over the course of several decades sports protection technology has been developed and optimized so that the users of various sports products have been offered a means to protect themselves from serious and permanent injuries. However, due to size, weight and shape of helmets and protective gear, the protection, at best, is limited. To date, there have been many attempts to enhance the absorption and dissipation of forces without significantly changing the size of the protective device. One exception that was successful was the flexible facemask patented by C. J. Abraham in 1982 and 1986 that was licensed and manufactured by Riddell (1,2). It is used in the sport of football. The weight and design of this piece of equipment have been significant in changing said facemasks.

At the present time, professionals in football and ice hockey continue to receive head and bodily injuries that force them to prematurely to retire. Amateurs, also incurring similar injuries, are forced out of their respective games as well. The state of technology of protective equipment is at a standstill. No significant improvements have been made to raise the standard of care in order to reduce the number of permanent injuries reported each year. By creating a new standard of care, a reduction in the risk of injury in many sports activities is an obvious and beneficial result.

The undersigned has developed and tested a novel series of designs in protective equipment that absorbs and dissipates more forces than any system available to date. Without optimizing the system, the enhancement in helmets alone, has resulted in the reduction of forces ranging from sixteen (16) to thirty-nine (39) percent, dependent on the type of helmet and area tested.

The designs tested above have applications in many areas. However, the limiting factor in applying the principles and designs is the practical and economical method to manufacture a universal system. A few approaches attempting to solve this problem and tests performed applying these suggestions are demonstrated and discussed.

* Director – Scientific Advisory Services, Ltd.
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